In this post I will cover some of the aspects of using vShield Edge (vSE) devices at vApp level, mostly things I have learnt the hard way. I am currently using vCloud 1.5 and the aspects herein are related to this version. However, I will specify changes that appear in vCD 5.1.
In vApp diagram, vSE is represented interposed between the vApp network and the organization network:
The symbol displays a firewall, if firewall services are active. vSE offers the following services:
All configuration is done using vCD portal. DHCP services can be created for vApp network and the configuration is basic:
It is not possible to create MAC reservations, but basic service functions are available.
Firewall configuration has by default Deny policy enabled and allows any traffic going outbound:
vSE can be configured to send syslog messages to a central server, and it is highly recommended to do it if you want to debug anything. But the syslog server can only be configured globally at vCD level, not separately for each organization. If you are an organization admin, it will be difficult, if not impossible to get access to syslog server.. Other issue is that the graphical interface does not allow copy or clone rules.Which means a lot of manual work. To make things worse, you cannot add two different hosts or subnets in the source or destination field - no possibility to group more objects. More manual work. I do not know why they have provided such a bad interface to vSE.
Next service is NAT - by default vSE is configured in IP translation mode. VMs are assigned IPs from Organization network and vSE does the rest: source and destination NAT.
Org network IPs can be statically assigned or automatically. But, they cannot be unassigned from a VM. If there are 10 VMs connected to the vApp network, then all 10 will be assigned IPs from the Organization network even if only 1 VM needs such an IP (simple use case - one arm load balancing topology). Adding the 1 IP used by vSE, a total of 11 IPs will be used. This is a problem since you might get into situations where you run out of IPs at Organization level (I did).
Do not think of publishing in the vApp two services on the same port. You will not be able to do it.
A difference in 5.1 is that you can specify source and destination NAT separately.
Last feature that vSE provides is static routing. There is not much to talk about it - it allows adding of static routes:
One more limitation of vSE in 1.5 is that it has only 2 interfaces: one external and one internal. In 5.1 there are multiple network interfaces provided to external networks.
vCloud Director 5.1 brings other changes from 1.5:
- IP masquerading setting was removed
- there is no default rule on the firewall
More details about these two changes can be found here
Unfortunately, vSE brings too many technical limitations to be a useful firewall and in many cases architectural decisions have to be made to not use vSE. Changing vSE with other technologies that provide better firewall, NAT and routing functions also brings its own technological challenges.